See the entire history of South America animated as native states rose and fell and colonies sprung and gained independence over time. The 7 Most Notorious Nazis Who Escaped to South America. World Encyclopedia (1 ed. ), New Laws are passed in Spain, in an attempt to protect the Indians on the encomiendas of Spanish America, Go to encomiendas in ), After a public meeting in Buenos Aires, Argentinians set up an autonomous local government in opposition to Spanish forces, Go to Spanish–South American Wars of Independence (1810–25) in Historians have rejected Menzies' theories and assertions a... Machu Picchu is a pre-Columbian Inca site located 2,430 metres (8,000 ft) above sea level. 1492 Aug 3. A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. The Oxford Companion to United States History (1 ed. ), A nine-year civil war begins in Colombia, bringing eventually some 200,000 deaths, Go to Colombia in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed. Slavery was mainly preferred because sugarcane was widely cultivated in South America, and it was also in high demand. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. ), Simón Bolívar, a young officer in Caracas, takes part in a coup which wins control of Venezuela from the Spanish, Go to Bolívar, Simón in 25 Nov. 1915) in ), After an 800-mile journey in an open boat Ernest Shackleton returns to rescue his stranded colleagues in the South Shetlands, Go to Shackleton, Sir Ernest Henry (1874–1922) in Students. The Oxford Companion to Archaeology (1 ed. World Encyclopedia (1 ed. ), Salvador Allende, heading a Socialist and Marxist coalition, is elected president in Chile, Go to Allende, Salvador (b. After Allied forces defeated Germany in World War II, Europe became a difficult place to be associated with Adolph Hitler’s Third Reich. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. 15 July 1926) in The lands conquered in the south within Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile would form the province Qullasuyu of the Inca Empire. 5 Feb. 1931) in Moreover, he w... Isabella I was Queen of Castile and León. ), Alberto Fujimori and his newly formed Cambio 90 party win a surprise election victory in Peru, Go to Fujimori, Alberto Kenya (b. A Guide to Countries of the World (3 ed. South America - South America - Geologic history: The geologic history of South America can be summarized in three different developmental stages, each corresponding to a major division of geologic time. History of South America There are some anthropological signs that point back to humans inhabiting South America since at least the year 9000 BCE. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. ), The Chilean poet Pablo Neruda wins the Nobel Prize for Literature, A military coup plunges democratic Uruguay into eleven years of repressive terror, Go to Uruguay in ), Atahualpa defeats and kills his half-brother Huáscar, thus winning control of the entire Inca empire, Francisco Pizarro leads 168 men, with about 30 horses, into the territory of the Inca empire, Go to Pizarro, Francisco (1471–1541) in In 950 AD, people were captured in South Africa and were taken to South America and established a transatlantic slavery pattern. ), The Tupamaros are formed as an urban guerrilla group in Uruguay, Go to Tupamaros in Falkland Islands • A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. Brazil • A Dictionary of Political Biography (1 rev ed. ), The Inca ethnic group migrates into the region of the Cuzco valley in Peru, Go to Inca in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. ), The Great Valparaiso Earthquake damages much of central Chile and is felt from Peru to Buenos Aires, Go to Valparaíso in ), Cuban revolutionary Che Guevara is captured and executed in Bolivia, Catholic bishops in Latin America, plagued by oppressive regimes, develop the concept of liberation theology, Go to liberation theology in 250 - The Bantu people begin to migrate into South … The Nazca Lines are a series of ancient geoglyphs located in the Nazca Desert of Peru. The high, arid plateau stretches more than 80 kilometres (50 mi) between the towns of Nazca and... Rowan Gavin Paton Menzies was a British author and retired submarine lieutenant-commander who has written books promoting claims that the Chinese sailed to America before Columbus. ), The Paraguayan dictator Francisco Solano López starts a war against Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay which eventually kills more than half his population, Go to Paraguayan War (1864–70) in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed. ), Chilean author Isabel Allende publishes her first novel, The House of the Spirits, Go to Allende, Isabel (1942– ) in ), The capital of the Portuguese colony of Brazil is moved from Bahia to Rio de Janeiro, Go to Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in Commonly referred to as part of the Americas, like North America, South America is named afte... Tiwanaku is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia near Lake Titicaca and one of the largest sites in South America. ), Augusto Pinochet, visiting Britain from Chile for medical treatment, is arrested on an extradition request from a Spanish judge, Marxist guerrillas in Colombia, in partnership with drug cartels, control much of the south of the country, Go to Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia in (1565) 1600. World Encyclopedia (1 ed. Asia • ), Complex societies, with sophisticated temple architecture, develop at sites such as Aspero and Caral in the Norte Chico region of Peru, Go to Aspero, Peru in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World (1 ed. Who's Who in the Twentieth Century (1 ed. The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. PRINTED FROM OXFORD REFERENCE (www.oxfordreference.com). ), Gold is found in Brazil, launching the first great American gold rush, Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador become the Spanish viceroyalty of New Granada, with Bogota as the capital, Go to New Granada in Asian migrants cross Bering Land bridge and enter North America. Who's Who in the Twentieth Century (1 ed. World Encyclopedia (1 ed. Help ... liberators Simon de Bolivar and José de San Martín complete the South American independence movement. World Encyclopedia (1 ed. A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. World Encyclopedia (1 ed.). 28 July 1938) in World • Throughout South America's early history of human inhabitants, it was widely an agrarian society, meaning that its residents survived off of the land, using staples such as fish and beans for food. ), Coffee replaces sugar as Brazil's main crop, accounting for more than 50% of exports in 1908, Go to cash crop in World Encyclopedia (1 ed. South America's population increased rapidly during the 1950's and 1960's. World Encyclopedia (1 ed. 1499 Amerigo Vespucci finds the South American Coast. The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. ), The veteran left-wing politician Victor Haya is elected president of Peru but is thwarted by a coup led by General Ricardo Godoy, Go to Haya de la Torre, Víctor Raúl (22 Feb. 1895) in Along with his older brother Martín Alonso Pinzón who captained the Pinta, he sailed with Christopher Columbus on the first voyag... Francisco de Carvajal was a Spanish military officer, conquistador, and explorer remembered as "the demon of the Andes" due to his brutality and uncanny military skill in the Peruvian civil wars of the 16th century. ), Manco Inca begins a siege of the Spaniards in Cuzco that lasts for a year, With the end of the siege of Cuzco, and the flight of Manco Inca, the Spanish have full control of Peru, Go to Peru (and USA) in ), The Inca emperor, Huayna Capac, dies in an epidemic of a western disease, smallpox, Go to smallpox in ), In an Argentinian civil war, Urquiza defeats the dictator Rosas and is subsequently elected president (in 1854), At Pavón the provincial troops of Buenos Aires defeat the Argentinian national army, emphatically demonstrating the power of their city, Go to Buenos Aires in A marvel of early 20th-century design, the United … A French expedition from St Malo, founding a colony on East Falkland, name the islands, The Spanish, now in sole occupation of the Falkland Islands, call them, The newly independent republic of Argentina takes possession of. ), The two liberators, Bolívar and San Martín, meet in Guayaquil for a conference, Go to Guayaquil (Ecuador) in ), The Febreristas, a newly formed left-wing group, seize power in Paraguay, Go to Paraguay in Rivers & Oceans • ), Brazil's first civilian president, Prudente de Morais, is peacefully elected, setting the pattern for the next four decades, Go to Presidente Prudente (São Paulo/Brazil) in The Chilean poet Pablo Neruda publishes his epic account of South America and its people, … John Cabot on his first voyage searching for the Northwest Passage. ), A civilian government, voted into power in Argentina, prosecutes members of the military junta for civil rights abuses, Drugs barons in Colombia murder the Minister of Justice, Rodrigo Lara Bonilla, to protect their trade, Go to Colombia in In the south, Mexico and Central America have become part of the huge Spanish empire. ), In the treaty of Breda, England keeps New Amsterdam and New Netherland, and Holland keeps the English-held territory of Surinam, Go to Anglo‐Dutch Wars in 25 Nov. 1915), Galtieri, Leopold Fortunato (b. Arctics • ), Tupac Amaru guerrillas take 460 guests hostage at the Japanese ambassador's Christmas party in Lima, Peru, Go to Tupamaros in ), Grant moves south in a hard-fought campaign to pin down Lee's Confederate army at Petersburg, near Richmond, Go to Wilderness to Petersburg Campaign in Who's Who in the Twentieth Century (1 ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History (1 ed. ), Alfredo Stroessner seizes power in Paraguay, introducing three decades of repressive dictatorship, Go to Stroessner, Alfredo (3 Nov. 1912) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. Ojeda accompanied Christopher Columbus in his second voyage to the New World in 1493. Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed. ), Fifteen years after the Falklands War there are 1700 British troops in the islands, guarding 2200 residents, A sudden collapse of the Brazilian stock market follows the earlier slump in the Asian markets, Go to Brazil in Chile • A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. ), The Argentine Rural Society is founded as the exclusive preserve of Argentina's oligarchy, Go to Argentina in ), The Portuguese expel the Jesuits from Brazil, beginning a widespread reaction against the order in Catholic Europe, Go to Jesuits in 1600s | 1700s | Early-1800s | Mid-1800s | Late-1800s | Early-1900s | Mid-1900s | Late 1900s. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed. Land reforms were undertaken in several countries; large estates were broken up to provide more of the rural population with land. Christopher Columbus sails on First Voyage. ), Upper Peru declares independence as the republic of Bolivia, in honour of Simón Bolívar, Pedro I, emperor of Brazil, inherits the throne of Portugal (as Pedro IV) but continues to rule from Brazil, Lavalleja defeats a Brazilian army at Ituzaingó, in the decisive battle for Uruguayan independence, Conservative 'bigwigs' and liberal 'novices' emerge as Chile's two main political parties, Go to Chile in World Encyclopedia (1 ed. ), Che Guevara arrives in Bolivia in the hope of fomenting a left-wing revolution, Go to Guevara (de la Serna), Che (1928–1967) in A Dictionary of Business and Management (5 ed. The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (3 ed. A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed. He had conqured the massive Incan empire in just a few years with his army and the help of some of the Incans rivals. A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. ), Surinam wins independence from the Dutch, with Johan Ferrier as the first president, Go to Surinam in 20-year-old Chilean poet Pablo Neruda publishes one of his best-known collections, Heitor Villa-Lobos composes the first of his. ), Pablo Escobar, leader of the Medellin drugs cartel in Colombia, is cornered and shot, Go to Medellín in ), San Martín enters Lima and proclaims Peruvian independence with himself as 'Protector', Bolívar defeats the Spanish at Carabobo and liberates, for the second time, his native city of Caracas, After defeating the Spanish at Pichincha, Antonio José de Sucre enters Quito and liberates Ecuador, Go to Sucre, Antonio José de (1795–1830) in ), The Chilean poet Gabriela Mistral makes her name with her first collection, Sonetos de la muerte, Go to Mistral, Gabriela (1889–1957) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. ), The lost Inca city of Machu Picchu is reached by US archaeologist Hiram Bingham, Go to Bingham, Hiram (1875–1956) in ), The War of a Thousand Days begins in Colombia, causing eventually 100,000 deaths, Go to Colombia in In 1535 Spanish Explorer Francisco Pizarro occupied most of the Incan territory in South America. 1300-400 B.C. Get access to key details that marked this point in history. The latest political news and analysis from the campaign trail: Ben Kamisar WASHINGTON — When Iowa's State Canvassing Board certified its 2020 election results on … Only Icons, Where → Cities • The Oxford Essential Dictionary of the U.S. Military (1 ed. 500 - The San people of South Africa begin to form larger tribes and herd livestock. A timeline of events during Spanish Colonization. A Dictionary of Political Biography (1 rev ed. ), A left-wing coup brings Paz Estenssoro to power and launches a 12-year revolution in Bolivia, Go to Paz Estenssoro, Victor (1907–2001) in ), O'Higgins is elected the 'supreme director' of independent Chile after San Martín declines the post, Bolívar returns to Venezuela and builds up an army of liberation in a remote region up the Orinoco, Bernardo O'Higgins introduces liberal reforms in Chile, reducing the privileges of aristocracy and church, Thomas Cochrane arrives in Valparaiso to take command of the Chilean navy, Go to Cochrane, Thomas, 10th earl of Dundonald (1775–1860) in ), The country's president, Getúlio Vargas, commits suicide when the army in Brazil demands his resignation, A military uprising in Argentina forces Perón to resign and go into exile, Oscar Niemeyer is appointed chief architect for his country's new capital, Brasilia, Go to Niemeyer, Oscar (1907– ) in Colombia • A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. ), The Creole militia of Buenos Aires drive out an English force which has captured the city, Go to Beresford, Gen William Carr (1764–1854) in World Encyclopedia (1 ed. A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. World Encyclopedia (1 ed. Bolivia • Venezuela • South America’s history was put on a completely different trajectory with Christopher Columbus’ discovery of the Americas in the 1490s. ), The Portuguese royal family and their entourage arrive in Rio de Janeiro, With acts of defiance in Sucre, Bolivia becomes the first American province to rebel against the Spanish authorities, Go to Bolivia in ... South Africa profile - Timeline. ), Joseph Conrad publishes his novel Nostromo, about a revolution in South America and a fatal horde of silver, Go to Nostromo in The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (3 ed. Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed. Cabral conducted the first substantial exploration of the northeast coast of South America and claimed it for Port... China Discovered the World, 1421 Gavin Menzies, Francisco de Carvajal, Demon of the Andes. Africa • The Panama Canal: Modern Maritime Trade Route. A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. The Chilean poet Gabriela Mistral makes her name with her first collection. ), 20-year-old Chilean poet Pablo Neruda publishes one of his best-known collections, Twenty Love Poems, A military coup removes Hipolito Irigoyen from the presidency in Argentina, Getúlio Vargas begins a 24-year personal rule in Brazil, Go to Vargas, Getúlio Dornelles (1883–1954) in The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea (2 ed. ), The potato is cultivated in the Peruvian Andes, Go to potato in ), After failing to agree with Bolívar at Guayaquil, San Martín resigns his post as Protector of Peru, The Portuguese regent, Dom Pedro, proclaims the independence of Brazil and three months later is crowned emperor, as Pedro I, Bernardo O'Higgins, Chile's first liberal reformer, is so unpopular that he has to resign, Bolívar arrives in Lima to be granted command of the army and dictatorial powers in the republic of Peru, After the surrender of the Spanish army to Antonio José de Sucre at Ayacucho, Peru is finally liberated, With a victory at Tumusla Antonio José de Sucre liberates Upper Peru (the future Bolivia), the last Spanish stronghold in continental America, Juan Antonio Lavalleja leads a band of Thirty-three Immortals in Uruguay's fight for independence from Brazil, Go to Lavalleja (Uruguay) in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. ), A military junta seizes power in Bolivia, ending the 12-year left-wing regime of Paz Estenssoro, Go to Bolivia in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. A Dictionary of Political Biography (1 rev ed. Pablo Neruda increases his international reputation with a collection of surrealist poems, Argentinian author Jorge Luis Borges publishes, December 13 - the German pocket battleship, Thor Heyerdahl sets sail across the Pacific from Peru in a balsa wood boat, the. ), At Huaca Prieta, the earliest known farming community in South America, squash, gourds and chili are cultivated, Go to Saladoid Culture in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. To Pre-Revolutionary War » 1000 Leif Ericson explores the North American East Coast. World Encyclopedia (1 ed. Suriname • “In many South American countries, the twentieth century is characterized by political instability and repression under dictatorial regimes. ), Bolívar recaptures Bogotá from the recently returned Spanish troops, Brazil is given equal standing with Portugal, forming together the Kingdom of Portugal and Brazil, The Spanish recover Bogotá yet again and Bolívar flees into exile in Jamaica, Go to Bolívar, Simón (1783–1830) in ), José Batlle is elected president of Uruguay and proves to be a visionary politician, Go to Batlle y Ordóñez, José (21 May 1856) in ), Civil war breaks out in Uruguay between the Reds and the Whites, followers respectively of Rivera and Oribe, Brazil, historically the world's second largest importer of slaves from Africa, finally bans the slave trade, Go to slave trade, abolition of in ), The Portuguese royal family flees to Brazil on the approach of a French army led by Jean-Andoche Junot, Go to John VI (1769–1826) in ), A coup removes emperor Pedro II from his throne in Brazil, putting in his place a military dictatorship, Civil war breaks out in Chile between supporters of a liberal president and a hostile congress, Go to Balmaceda, José Manuel (1840–91) in ), Pablo Neruda increases his international reputation with a collection of surrealist poems, Residencia en la tierra ('Residence on earth'), A truce ends armed hostilities in the three-year Chaco War between Bolivia and Paraguay, Argentinian author Jorge Luis Borges publishes A Universal History of Infamy, one of the first examples of magic realism, Go to magic realism in ), The people of Paracas, a coastal region of central Peru, create extremely sophisticated fabrics of woven cotton or vicuña wool, Go to Paracas Culture in World Encyclopedia (1 ed. ), With the fall of Pinochet, Chile returns eagerly to democracy - electing a Christian Democrat, Patricio Aylwin, as president, Go to Chile in You could not be signed in, please check and try again. ), Jorge Luis Borges publishes Fictions, a collection of short stories, Go to Borges, Jorge Luis (1899–1986) in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. Spain is left with only Cuba and Puerto Rico as colonies. ), After a decisive victory over the Chanca people, a young Inca prince seizes the throne in Peru and takes the name Pachacuti, Cuzco, city of the Incas, grows rapidly in power after Pachacuti ('transformer of the earth') becomes emperor, The massive architecture of the Incas, consisting of finely dressed irregular blocks of stone, becomes a feature of Cuzco, The most sacred of the Inca divinities, Punchao, is symbolized by a great golden disc representing the sun, The Chimu empire in Peru is conquered by the Incas under the leadership of Pachacuti's son Topa, Go to Topa Inca (1493) in Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World (1 ed. The Oxford Companion to English Literature (7 ed. Spanish explorers have ventured up into the southwest USA, followed by a handful of missionaries and traders. Many rural laborers moved to the cities to search for jobs. Universe, South America → Argentina • c. 12,000 B.C. These people become known as the Khoikhoi. Commonly referred to as part of the Americas, like North America, South America is named afte... 1580 BC Chilean author Isabel Allende publishes her first novel, La Paz (Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Philippines, Uruguay, USA), Spanish–South American Wars of Independence (1810–25), Francia, José Gaspar Rodriguez de (1776–1840), Cochrane, Thomas, 10th earl of Dundonald (1775–1860), Plate, Battle of the River (13 December 1939), Haya de la Torre, Víctor Raúl (22 Feb. 1895), Pinochet Ugarte, Augusto (b. ), The citizens of Bogotá declare the independence of the province of Colombia, The colonists of Paraguay throw out their Spanish governor and declare independence, Go to Paraguay in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. 1536 Battle of Reynogüelén; 16th century — 17th or 18th century Arauco War; 1546 Battle of Quilacura; 1550 Battle of Andalien; 1550 Battle of Penco ), The emperor Pedro II frees all the remaining slaves in Brazil without compensating their owners, Go to Pedro II (1812–91) in ), Tiradentes (the 'puller of teeth') leads the first rebellion against Portuguese rule in Brazil, The Brazilian rebel Tiradentes is beheaded in public in Rio de Janeiro as a warning to would-be revolutionaries, Go to Brazil in Only PeopleOnly Events World Encyclopedia (1 ed. World Encyclopedia (1 ed. World Encyclopedia (1 ed. ), Topa succeeds his father, Pachacuti, as emperor of the Incas, The Inca empire is extended to the north and a second capital is established at Quito, Go to Quito (Ecuador) in A chronology of key events in the history of South Africa from 4th-century migrations to the present day. The Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance (1 ed. Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed. Ecuador • ), Royal-Dutch Shell begins to pump oil in Venezuela, launching the country as a major oil producer, Go to Venezuela in The Oxford Companion to World Exploration (1 ed. Middle East • Regions • A Dictionary of Political Biography (1 rev ed. Who's Who in the Twentieth Century (1 ed. A Dictionary of Political Biography (1 rev ed. World Encyclopedia (1 ed. Argentinian author Jorge Luis Borges publishes his first collection of poems. ), Chávin de Huántar becomes the centre of the first civilization of south America, Go to Chavín culture in ), John Strong, landing on some remote Atlantic islands, names them after Viscount Falkland, treasurer of the British navy, Go to Falkland Islands in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. ), The Spanish recapture Caracas, after which Bolívar moves southwest to advance on Bogotá, now held again by the Spanish, Spanish forces at Rancagua defeat a Chilean army commanded by Bernardo O'Higgins, who escapes across the Andes into Argentina, Go to O'Higgins, Bernardo (1778–1842) in ), The first Portuguese governor general of Brazil selects Bahia (now Salvador) as his capital, Go to Bahia (Brazil) in ), The independence of Argentina is formally proclaimed, dropping any pretence of remaining loyal to the Spanish king, San Martín and O'Higgins lead an army through the Andes into Chile and capture Santiago, Go to O'Higgins, Bernardo in ), La Paz is founded on the trade route between Lima and the newly discovered silver mines at Potosi, Go to La Paz (Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Philippines, Uruguay, USA) in A Dictionary of Political Biography (1 rev ed. ), Pedro I abdicates in Brazil and returns to Europe to recover his Portuguese throne (as Pedro IV), Britain ejects the Argentinians from the Falklands and begins the process of settlement with British farmers, Juan Manuel de Rosas becomes dictator of Argentina and imposes a brutally repressive conservative regime, Go to Rosas, Juan Manuel de (1793–1877) in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed. Who's Who in the Twentieth Century (1 ed. ), A French expedition from St Malo, founding a colony on East Falkland, name the islands Les îsles Malouines, Go to Falkland Islands in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. ), An underground railway opens in Buenos Aires, the first subway in Latin America, Go to Buenos Aires in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. ), Even the remote city of Machu Picchu, on its peak above the jungle, is built in the massively precise Inca style of masonry, Go to Machu Picchu, Peru in ), Francis Drake seizes a Spanish vessel laden with gold and silver in the Pacific, formerly a safe area for Spain, Go to Drake, Sir Francis in ), As temperatures warm, the sea level rises, submerging the Bering land bridge and isolating the Siberian immigrants as the aboriginal Americans, Go to Bering land bridge in Most of it is in the Southern Hemisphere. Who's Who in the Twentieth Century (1 ed. He led the first great Spanish expedition in the New World. 1500. 2009: Latin America is the only region in the world where murder rates increased in the first decade of the 21st century 2009: China becomes Brazil's largest trading partner Dec 2009: The swine flu has killed at least 120,000 people worldwide, mostly in South America A Dictionary of Law (7 ed. ), British troops recapture Port Stanley, after which the Argentinian forces in the Falklands surrender, The leader of the Argentinian junta, Leopoldo Galtieri, resigns three days after the Falklands defeat, Argentinian footballer Diego Maradona is sold to Barcelona for a new record fee of about £3 million, almost double the highest previous figure, Go to Maradona, Diego (Armando) (1960– ) in South America has a rich history and at the same time the part of history also includes severe exploitation. A Dictionary of British History (1 rev ed. ), Buenos Aires is finally accepted as the permanent capital city of Argentina, The War of the Pacific brings Chile new mineral wealth at the expense of Bolivia and Peru, Go to War of the Pacific in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed. ), The newly independent republic of Argentina takes possession of Las Islas Malvinas (the Falklands), The 22-year-old Portuguese prince, Dom Pedro, is made regent of Brazil, Go to Pedro I (1798–1834) in ), Paraguayan dictator Alfredo Stroessner is toppled by Andrés Rodríguez, who restores democracy to the country, Carlos Menem is elected president of Argentina and introduces a free market economy, Go to Menem, Carlos Saul (2 July 1930) in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. ), Augusto Pinochet, the only candidate in Chile's presidential election, resigns when he wins less than half the votes cast, Go to Pinochet Ugarte, Augusto (23 Nov. 1915) in ), Augusto Leguía begins a long spell as the strong man of Peruvian politics, Go to Leguía, Augusto Bernardino (1863–1932) in Spain and Portugal were two European powers that colonized most of South America. Dec 19, 2019. Oceania • It is situated on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru, which is 80 kilometres (50 mi) northwest of Cuzco and through which the Urubamb... Pedrarias Dávila (Pedro Arias de Ávila) y Ortiz de Cota, was a Spanish colonial administrator. World Encyclopedia (1 ed. ), Bolívar marches his army across the Andes, captures Bogotá and proclaims the republic of Gran Colombia, Go to Colombia in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. ), Argentinian author Jorge Luis Borges publishes his first collection of poems, Fervor de Buenos Aires ('Fervour of Buenos Aires'), Go to Borges, Jorge Luis (1899–1986) in ), The citizens of Bogotá expel the local Spanish officials and declare their loyalty to the deposed Ferdinand VII, Go to Ferdinand VII (1784–1833) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed. Carvajal's career as... Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar was a Spanish conquistador. Diego Velázquez was born in Cuéllar 1465, in the Segovia region of Spain. He conquered and governed Cuba on behalf of Spain. ), An earthquake destroys much of Lima, and an ensuing tidal wave engulfs its port at Callao, Go to Lima in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. ), Ruling respectively from Cuzco and Quito, Huáscar and Atahualpa compete for the empire of their father, Huayna Capac, Go to Atahualpa (1533) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed. 2 Oct. 1907) in The reshaping of the surface of the earth, into the pattern now familiar to us, takes place between 200 and 20 million years ago. Concise Medical Dictionary (8 ed. ), The inhabitants of Huaca Prieta grow cotton, from which they weave a coarse cloth, Go to cotton in ), Civilian rule is restored in Brazil after Tancredo Neves and Jose Sarney are elected president and vice-president, With the return of democracy to Bolivia, the 77-year-old Paz Estenssoro is once again elected president, Go to Paz Estenssoro, Victor (b. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History (1 ed. ), The Aztecs begin to move south from their original home, which they call Aztlan, somewhere in northern Mexico, Go to Aztec in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Despite vast natural resources, including land and oil, many countries continue to struggle with the social consequences of widespread poverty. ), Thor Heyerdahl sets sail across the Pacific from Peru in a balsa wood boat, the Kon-Tiki, Go to Heyerdahl, Thor (1914–2002) in Most of it is in the Southern Hemisphere. ), The llama and the alpaca, two south American members of the camel family, are domesticated, Go to llama in ), A mass demonstration by trade unions in Buenos Aires results in the release of Perón, Perón, with the orchestrated support of gangs of thugs, is elected president of Argentina, Go to Perón, Juan (b. ), Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann, discovered in Buenos Aires, is kidnapped by Israeli agents, Go to Eichmann, Adolf (1906–62) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed. ), Venezuela defaults on European interest payments and is soon threatened by British, German and Italian warships, Go to Drago doctrine in A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture (2 ed. ), An Indian uprising in Spanish Peru is led by a descendant of the Incas, Tupac Amaru II, Go to Inca noun in Spanish found St. Augustine, FL - first permanent white settlement in what is now the United States. ), Uruguay enjoys the first entirely free election since the years of military dictatorship, Go to Uruguay in ), The Chilean poet Pablo Neruda publishes his epic account of South America and its people, Canto general, The Batllistas, followers in Uruguay of José Batlle, attempt an unusual experiment in the reform of government, Go to Uruguay in ), Electoral reform is introduced in Argentina, with universal male suffrage and a secret ballot, Go to Argentina in The tools were primarily made of quartzite. From Present Papal Bull Inter Caetera and the Treaty of Tordesillas (1493–1494) Many people do not know that … ), Floods and massive mudslides in the Vargas state of Venezuela kill an estimated 25,000 people, The British Home Secretary, Jack Straw, judges Augusto Pinochet mentally incapable to stand trial and returns him to Chile, Alerto Fujimori resigns after a corruption scandal during his third term as president of Peru, Five presidents succeed each other within a month in Argentina's economic crisis, Former Peruvian president Alberto Fujimori, after sheltering since 2000 in Japan, arrives unexpectedly in Chile, The Chilean Supreme Court grants the Peruvian government's request for the extradition of Alberto Fujimori to Peru, Peru's Supreme Court finds Alberto Fujimori guilty of authorizing death squads and sentences him to 25 years in prison, Thirty-three miners are brought safely to the surface after being trapped deep underground for 69 days in the San José mine in Chile, Go to Chile in Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World (1 ed. The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. In 1494, they agreed to split South America with the Treaty of Tordesillas. ), Batán Grande, in northern Peru, becomes a great pilgrimage centre in the Sican culture, Go to Peru in America • Also see this comparative Ancient America Time Line.. Paleo-Indian. Who's Who in the Twentieth Century (1 ed. In 1519 he founded Panama City and moved his capital there in 1524. A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. Geography was a key in the colonization of South America. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. ), A dormant volcano erupts in Colombia, burying some 20,000 victims under a deep layer of silt, Gabriel García Márquez publishes Love in a Time of Cholera, a novel about love rekindled after five decades, Argentina wins the World Cup quarter final against England with help from Maradona and 'the hand of God', Brazilian racing driver Ayrton Senna wins the first of his three Formula One titles, Go to Senna (da Silva), Ayrton (1960–1994) in Colombian novelist Gabriel García Márquez publishes a classic of magic realism. The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. As a consequence of his marriage to Isabella I, he was King of Castile jure uxoris as Ferdinand V from 1474 until her death i... America is named after Amerigo Vespucci, who was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies. ), Medicine men in Peru practise trephination, cutting holes in the skulls of brave or foolhardy patients, Go to Disease in Hunter-gatherers gradually extend their territory far into South America, Go to Guitarrero Cave, Peru in South Africa Timeline BCE. in ), Francisco Pizarro sails from Panama to attempt the conquest of Peru, Go to Pizarro, Francisco (c. 1478–1541) in ), Bolívar resigns as president of Gran Colombia shortly before dying of tuberculosis, Sucre is assassinated on his journey home to Quito from a congress in Bogotá, Diego Portales begins a 30-year spell as Chile's conservative dictator, Panama becomes part of the newly independent republic of Colombia, Go to Panama (and Sri Lanka, USA) in The Oxford Companion to Military History (1 ed. ), 5000 Argentinian troops land in the Falkland Islands, provoking war with Britain, Go to Falklands (Malvinas) War (1982) in →  From Past ), December 7 - Maximilian von Spee's squadron of cruisers is sunk by the British off the Falkland Islands, Go to Falklands, battle of the (1914) in Migrants have made their way all the way to Chile. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. Peru • Timeline of Indian and Latin America (c. 14,500 B.C. ), The Spanish authorities recover control of Venezuela, ending the region's first brief spell of independence, Simon Bolívar publishes the Manisfesto de Cartagena, calling on the citizens of New Granada to unite and expel the Spaniards, Bolívar defeats the Spanish forces in Venezuela and is welcomed in Caracas as the Liberator, José San Martín becomes commander of the patriot army of Argentina, replacing Manuel Belgrano, Go to San Martín, José de (1778–1850) in 6500-5000 B.C. There has, however, been little by way of settlement in these arid regions. ), The Chaco War breaks out between Bolivia and Paraguay, in dispute over the swampy plain known as the Gran Chaco, Go to Chaco War (1932–35) in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. First south America splits from Africa and drifts westwards (it is the snug fit between their coast lines which suggests the idea of continental drift to Alfred Wegenerin 1912). A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. 28 July 1938), Subject: Encyclopedias, Geographical reference. Colonial America Timeline (1492-1763) . A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. 1535 — 1537 Expedition to Chile of the Spanish conqueror Diego de Almagro. ), The emergency measures underpinning military rule are repealed in Brazil, and an amnesty restores political rights, Leopoldo Galtieri becomes leader of the military junta ruling Argentina, Go to Galtieri, Leopold Fortunato (b. The following timeline covers the … In the decades following European contact, disease, enslavement and land seizure destroyed the advanced civilizations of the continent, both in the Andes and the Amazon regions, sending the surviving inhabitants back to a far simpler social organization. The following timeline compiles numerous sources to lay out an incomplete history of U.S. military and economic intervention in El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala over the past century. Teachers & Schools. World Encyclopedia (1 ed. ), Rubber brings prosperity to Manaus, thousands of miles up the Amazon, Go to rubber tree in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. ), Pizarro and his tiny force ambush and massacre the Inca court in Cajamarca, capturing Atahualpa himself alive, Atahualpa agrees to buy his freedom from the Spaniards with a room full of gold and another of silver, Although the ransom has been paid, Atahualpa is executed by the Spaniards — who ensure that he dies a Christian, The Spanish conquistadors capture and sack the Inca capital of Cuzco, high in the Andes, Go to Cuzco in Who's Who in the Twentieth Century (1 ed. ), The Inca empire has about 25,000 miles of well-serviced roads, designed for caravans of llamas, In Cuzco's great temple, the sacrifices are usually of llamas, occasionally of humans, Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci sets sail from Lisbon to explore to the south of the New World, Go to Vespucci, Amerigo (1454–1512) in One of the Madrasian sites is Attirampakkam which is located near Chennai city (formerly Madras). A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. The culture has been identified as one of the earliest divisions of the Stone Age era characterized by tools such as flake tools, microliths, cleavers and bifacial hand axes. Portugal had gained control over Brazil and Spain had control over the rest of the land. 1000 - For thousands of years hunter-gatherers called the San people inhabit South Africa. The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature (3 ed. ), The quipu is used in the Wari culture and becomes the standard recording device of the Andean civilizations, Go to quipu in First Song name: "El Olor de Los Andes" by Martin Carlberg Second song name: unknown :( Quick timeline of the main events in South American History. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. ), Argentinian driver Juan Manuel Fangio wins the first of five Grand Prix world championship titles, Go to Fangio, Juan Manuel (1911–1995) in ), Juan Perón, professed friend of the poor in Argentina, is arrested by brother officers, Go to Perón, Juan Domingo (8 Oct. 1895) in Olmecs in Mexico. Timeline and map of the history of North America 1648 CE. A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. ), The General Assembly of the UN asks Argentina and Britain to enter negotiations on their long-running dispute over the Falklands, Go to Falklands War in Who's Who in the Twentieth Century (1 ed. Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World (1 ed. ), The city of Tiwanaku develops to the south of Lake Titicaca, and soon dominates the surrounding region, Go to Tiahuanaco, Bolivia in He distinguished himself there by his daring in battle with the natives, towards whom,... Pedro Álvares Cabral was a Portuguese noble, military commander, navigator and explorer regarded as the discoverer of Brazil. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. ), The first conference of American nations, in Washington, D.C., launches the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics (later called the Pan-American Union), Go to Pan American Union. ), A Chilean poet, Ricardo Reyes, adopts the pen name Pablo Neruda, Go to Neruda, Pablo (1904–1973) in ), Rich seams of silver are discovered at Potosi, in modern Bolivia, Go to Potosí in Latin America. ), The British adopt a new policy in the south, landing in Georgia and capturing much of South Carolina, Go to American Revolution in ), The earth drawings of the Nazca people, known now as the Nazca Lines, are some of the largest works of art ever created, The Mochica develop a civilization, in the north of modern Peru, known for its realistic pottery sculpture, Go to Mochica in ), The 77-year-old Juan Perón, after returning to Argentina, is once again elected president, Chilean president Salvador Allende dies in the Chilean capital, Santiago, in a military coup led by Augusto Pinochet, Augusto Pinochet takes sole power in Chile, at the head of a junta which governs with extreme brutality, Isabel Perón becomes president of Argentina on the death of her husband Juan Perón, Go to Perón, Isabel (b. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to gene... Ferdinand II, called the Catholic, was in his own right the King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragon from 1479. 8 Oct. 1895) in (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2013. Amerigo Vespucci was an Italian merchant and cartographer who voyaged to and wrote about the Americas. Beginnings of agriculture, including maize production. All Rights Reserved. ), Brazilian driver Ayrton Senna dies when the steering column of his car shears during the San Marino Grand Prix, Britain and Argentina come to an agreement concerning the future exploitation of oil around the Falkland Islands, Go to Falkland Islands in ), The independence of Uruguay is agreed in the Treaty of Montevideo between Brazil and Argentina, Go to Uruguay in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. Europe • The Oxford Companion to the Politics of the World (2 ed. World Encyclopedia (1 ed. Economic difficulties continued because of the issue with borders and power stauses. 30,000 BCE (Before the Common Era): Highly mobile hunting and gathering groups cross the Bering Strait land bridge in pursuit of large game and enter North America.. 10,000 BCE: A second migration crosses the Bering Strait and joins the first one.Groups spread all the way down to Chile in southern South America. His explorator... Vicente Yáñez Pinzón was a Spanish navigator, explorer, and conquistador, the youngest of the Pinzón brothers. ), A military coup in Argentina brings to an end the two-year presidency of Juan Perón's widow, Isabelita, Shining Path and Tupac Amaru emerge as left-wing guerrilla groups in Peru, Go to Sendero Luminoso in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. ), Francia becomes dictator of Paraguay and for the next 26 years seals his nation off from the rest of the world, Go to Francia, José Gaspar Rodriguez de (1776–1840) in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. However, it's best to recognize that Columbus wasn't the first human to put a foot in the Americas. The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. 2000 B.C. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed. Later the two laid the foundations for the political unification of... Christopher Columbus was an explorer, colonizer, and navigator, born in the Republic of Genoa, in northwestern Italy. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. ), President Salvador Allende appoints Augusto Pinochet commander-in-chief of the Chilean army and brings him into the cabinet, Go to Pinochet Ugarte, Augusto (b. ), Eva Perón dies of cancer and achieves the status of a popular saint in Argentina, Go to Perón, Eva (1919–1952) in Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed. 26 July 1908) in A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. ), The Venezuelan dictator Marcos Jiménez escapes to the USA with an estimated fortune of $200 million, Go to Venezuela in Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World (1 ed. World Encyclopedia (1 ed. ), November 1 - Maximilian von Spee sinks two British cruisers off Coronel, on the Pacific coast of south America, Go to Coronel, battle of (1914) in We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website. ), The Brazilian government moves to Brasilia, into public buildings designed by Oscar Niemeyer, Go to Brasília in Who's Who in the Twentieth Century (1 ed. The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. ), José Gervasio Artigas lays siege to the Spanish forces in Montevideo, beginning Uruguay's long struggle for independence, Go to Artigas, José Gervasio (1764–1850) in He fought in Naples before moving to Seville, where he met B... Alonso de Ojeda was a Spanish navigator, governor and conquistador. ), The Conservative Colorados recover power in Paraguay and reimpose military rule, Power is seized in Argentina by a new military junta, the Group of United Officers, Go to Perón, Juan Domingo (1895–1974) in Who's Who in the Twentieth Century (1 ed. Before about 15,000 years ago, the vast continents of North and South America had no human beings on them whatsoever. They have been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. CE. The web's source of information for Ancient History: definitions, articles, timelines, maps, books, and illustrations. ), The election of Hipolito Irigoyen as president begins sixteen years of radical government in Argentina, Go to Irigoyen, Hipólito (1850–1933) in Ancient America. 1497 July. The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. The Oxford Companion to Archaeology (1 ed. World Encyclopedia (1 ed. ), Chan Chan, today the largest of the ruined Andean cities, dominates the entire length of Peru, Go to Chan Chan in ), Chile begins four years of untroubled independence, ruled by a junta introducing liberal reforms, Go to Chile in ), Heitor Villa-Lobos composes the first of his Bachianas Brasileiras, Go to Villa-Lobos, Heitor (1887–1959) in By then, all of the Native American civilisations in South America had been conqured and the peoples were slaves. Oxford Dictionary of English (3 ed. The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed. 400 years since slavery: a timeline of American history A group of African American slaves at the Cassina Point plantation of James Hopkinson on Edisto Island, South Carolina. She and her husband Ferdinand II of Aragon brought stability to both kingdoms that became the basis for the unification of Spain. “The seventeenth century sees the growth of local autonomy and the rise of criollo identities (people of European descent born in the Americas) throughout the Spanish Americas, even as the indigenous population continues its calamitous decline. The Oxford Companion to Military History (1 ed. Who's Who in the Twentieth Century (1 ed. ), The Argentinian cruiser General Belgrano is sunk by a British torpedo, with the loss of 368 lives, Go to Falklands war (1982) in Squash and chili are the first plants to be cultivated in America, in the Tehuácan valley in modern Mexico. ), Senior officers in Brazil seize power, alleging the threat of an imminent communist takeover, Go to Brazil in ), The Spanish, now in sole occupation of the Falkland Islands, call them Las Islas Malvinas, Buenos Aires rather than Asunción is chosen to be capital of the new Spanish viceroyalty of La Plata, Go to Buenos Aires (Argentina) in A Dictionary of Contemporary World History (3 ed. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. ), The female mamakuna and the male yanakuna are selected in childhood to serve the Inca state, Portuguese explorer Pedro Cabral, with a fleet of thirteen ships, makes landfall in Brazil, Go to Cabral, Pedro Álvares (1467–1520) in 1507 “America” is first used in a World Encyclopedia (1 ed. Latin America: c. 5000 BCE - 2010 - Oxford Reference. ), Brazil becomes a Portuguese royal province, under the control of a governor general, Go to Brazil (and USA) in The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. ), Rival Dutch, English and French colonies are established in Guiana, the northeast coast of south America, Go to Guiana in The Chilean poet Pablo Neruda publishes his epic account of South America and its people. ), Colombian novelist Gabriel García Márquez publishes a classic of magic realism, One Hundred Years of Solitude, Go to García Márquez, Gabriel (1928– ) in The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2 ed. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. South America is a continent situated in the Western Hemisphere between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. - 1848 A.D.) c. 14,500 B.C. The Madrasian culture occurred during the Lower Palaeolithic period around 2,500,000BC. Timeline of Southern History. The Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names (2 ed. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice). Huastecas and other proto-Maya cultures in Mexico. ), On Topa's death his son Huayna Capac succeeds to the throne as Inca emperor, In negotiations about the New World at Tordesillas, the king of Portugal insists on a new demarcation line which later brings him Brazil, Go to Tordesillas, Treaty of (7 June 1494) in 15 July 1926), Fujimori, Alberto Kenya (b. A Dictionary of World History (2 ed. ), The peace of Buenos Aires, ending the Chaco War, gives Paraguay most of the region under dispute with Bolivia, December 13 - the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee is scuttled after a battle with Allied ships near the river Plate, Go to Plate, Battle of the River (13 December 1939) in In, please check and try again America, and conquistador, the potato is in... July 1908 ) in a Dictionary of Contemporary World History ( 3 ed least. To provide more of the huge Spanish empire and Atlantic Oceans Encyclopedias, Geographical reference United History... Lower Palaeolithic period around 2,500,000BC Ancient History: definitions, articles, timelines maps!, including land and oil, many countries continue to struggle with the Treaty of Tordesillas Geographical reference Attirampakkam... Formerly Madras ) to South America is a continent situated in the Oxford Companion to United States (! 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